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National Science Day - Season 1 - Solar System - Neptune

We've reached the end. The last floor of the solar system building - Neptune. Besides being the furthest planet from the sun, there's a bunch of other fun things about this planet! To find out how the planet was discovered by math plus a ton of other cool information about Neptune, start watching!

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    Centuries back, when man had no access to technology and machines, he created something that would serve us very well in the times to come. Literally! The acquisition of data using astronomy, meaning the sun, moon and stars, is a tradition that dates back to the 1600BC. And it was this tradition, which made us travel to the Konark Sun Temple in Orissa, and then, Jantar Mantar in Jaipur. Submerged in age old glory and stories of stone, these astronomical wonders were one of the earliest constructions by our ancestors that gave the world the ability to tell time. The Konark Sun Temple possesses sundials, which had, and still have the ability to tell time to the exact minute using the position of the sun. Jantar Mantar, on the other hand, is a collection of architectural astronomical instruments, which can tell the time, follow the location of stars, track ellipses and the positions of the sun, moon and planets.

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    Did you know that some of the most impressive temples in the country have been carved manually by artisans chipping away at a single rock? This episode takes a look at the technique of monolithic building through the monuments at Mahabalipuram and Ajanta-Ellora.

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    It is 600 years B.C.E. and the oldest city in the world, Varanasi is home to a man who transformed lives of people by surgery. Using tools and techniques available in that ancient time, he instituted a system of surgery and operation which at that time made him an outcast in society, but which left behind a legacy that is an important part of medical history today.This is the story of surgery, practiced by Sushruta – the father of modern medicine. His tools and techniques remain virtually unchanged 2600 years later. How did he become so skilled? The answers unfold in the Banaras Hindu University in Banaras, with a contemporary surgeon explaining Sushruta’s techniques.

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    326 B.C.E. In the epic battle between Alexander and King Porus. Porus's much smaller force holds out against Alexander's massive army and creates a legend of courage equal to the Spartans. When Porus surrenders he hands Alexander a sword made of the finest steel known to man. This sword can slice cleanly through a falling handkerchief, is self-sharpening, and at the same time sharper and more bendable that any steel for the next 2000 years. Wootz steel (from the Tamil ukku/urukku) was used to make the legendary Damascus steel blades. These blades were more highly prized than wealth and gemstones across the world, and the steel was only manufactured in India. Yet, by the 18th century, the technique was lost for ever. This is the story of the greatest weapons ever made, one that held primacy over the world for close to 2000 years, was developed and manufactured in our land, but has been forgotten, and lost. Perhaps in some small Tamilian village, there is a blacksmith from out of time, still forging wootz steel unbeknownst to the world. Anything is possible in India.

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    Long before modern climate control technology took over, our ancestors designed cooling systems based on natural principles that cooled massive structures. This episode takes us to Rajasthan's Hawa Mahal and Chand Baori to take a look at how the monuments are constructed in order to keep them naturally cool.

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    Known as the 'Cradle of Civilization', caves were the earliest homes to our kind. Man understood the importance of having a roof over his head as one of his basic necessities, and so came into being the Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra and the Udayagiri and Khandgiri Caves in Orissa. Masterpieces of the most exemplary architecture, engravings and sculptures seen by the eye, both sets of caves served as monasteries for Buddhist and Jain monks. Constructed around the 1st century, the caves are stupendous examples of all that our forefathers built brick by brick, and stone by stone, without the advantages of technology and science. Carved and chiseled with handmade tools from that time, Ajanta and Udagayiri/Khandagiri caves are some of the finest instances in Indian history.

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    The world's oldest known dock is situated at the Indus Valley site of Lothal (2400 BCE). It was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. Modern oceanographers have observed that the Harappans must have possessed great knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering. This was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships. It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks. Come explore the history of this dock with us, as we talk with archaeologists, oceanographers, maritime engineers and scientists, and travel down to Lothal to unravel the science and technology behind this marvel of engineering and try and gain some insight into the minds and culture of the Harappan people who created this marvel and then fell into obscurity.

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    The first rockets to be used as weapons were fire arrows in China, then Korea, and then by the Mongols of Genghis Khan. However, the effect of fire arrows was more psychologically than physically destructive. However, in the mid 1700's, in the kingdom of Mysore, the valiant fighter and the Tiger of Mysore, Tipu Sultan along with his father Haidar Ali developed a new kind of weapon. Unlike earlier rockets they built theirs out of iron –making a hollow tube into which an explosive was placed. These new rockets were not only far more dangerous and could cause great damage to anything they struck, but also had an effective range of over 2 kilometres. Tipu Sultan used these effectively against the British forces, wreaking great havoc among the British armies, before he was ultimately defeated. However, those rockets of Tipu's became the blueprint for the Congreve rocket, which the British used to defeat Napoleon, and were the forerunners of all rocket artillery. And today the rockets have not only taken the shape of missiles , they also are the technology behind satellites. Tipu's Rocket has come a long way!

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    The city of Balasinor has been a site of attraction for several palaeontologists worldwide to study and research fossils. In this documentary, host Neha S. K. Mehta takes us to the Dinosaur Fossil Park situated in this city of Gujarat- the 3rd largest dinosaur fossil excavation site in the world. This site is the only place in the globe to have 675 million years-old fossilized dinosaur eggs. See them for yourself in Balasinor: Rediscover India's Dinosaurs.

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    This episode highlights 10 eminent scientists, whose path breaking inventions put India as a leading nation in scientific discovery on the world map. Be it in the field of medicine, physics, astronomy, botany or mathematics - this episode traces the legacy of those discoveries that laid the foundations of their respective disciplines. An interesting episode which gives insight into the ideologies which stand as the pillars of all modern discovery.

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    Our host Ashutosh Rana meets Trishneet Arora from Punjab. This unassuming 24-year-old is the brain behind TAC Security, a cybersecurity company that has been making waves across the world. The company works with private and government organizations in India and the US, along with a number of multinational companies, to prevent cyber-attacks on security and improve security using ethical hacking. A boy from Ludhiana who did not go to school after standard 8, Trishneet started working in the field of cybersecurity at the age of 14 and started his company when he was 19. In a short span of 5 years, he has won innumerable awards, put India on the world may for cybersecurity, and astounded people with his intellect, unique ideas, and his zest for being better at what he does. Watch Trishneet Arora’s unique and amazingly inspiring journey to being on the list for Forbes 30 Under 30 at just 24 years of age in this EPIC Special.

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    Ever heard of an ancient defense system that reveals enemies just through their lightest whispers and movements? This episode takes us to Hyderabad's Golconda fort and Gol Gumbaz to highlight the ancient acoustic systems in place.

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    Admire the architectural genius of 'Do minara', popularly known as 'Jhulta Minara'. These two tall towers or Minaras which are located in Ahmedabad are made of Sandstone and swing simultaneously without having any visible connections when one is pushed. From shaking minarets, now travel to Junagarh Mahabat and Bahauddin Maqbara, a sensation of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Witness the jaw dropping combination of Gothic, Turkish, Mughal and Rajput architecture that has come together to adorn this structure.

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    Uncle Anu couldn't make it today, so he sent a member of Anu Club, Prateek, to let you in on the secrets of the Solar System. In the first episode of the series, where Anu Club takes a deep dive into our place in space, find out how the Solar System came to be.

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    Sadhguru says that sound is energy and resonance, and it has immense power. Yoga believes all existence is sound, and Shiva is the source of all sound. Shiva is silence and rules all existence; when he moves, there's sound. Yoga, music, and Om chanting help make the journey from sound to soundlessness, stillness, and silence. Indian classical music perpetuate the science of sound with ragas based on the effects they have on the body and the mind.

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    Anu Club is back with an all-new installment in the Solar System series starting with our very own star - The Sun! Join Anu Club crew member Kushal, as he takes us on an in-depth tour of the Solar System's founder, The SUN!

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    This episode highlights 10 eminent scientists, whose path breaking inventions put India as a leading nation in scientific discovery on the world map. Be it in the field of medicine, physics, astronomy, botany or mathematics - this episode traces the legacy of those discoveries that laid the foundations of their respective disciplines. An interesting episode which gives insight into the ideologies which stand as the pillars of all modern discovery.

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    This time on Anu Club, we take a look at the smallest, tiniest, and fastest planet in the Solar System - Mercury! Anu Club Crew member Prateek takes you on a guided tour of the closest planet to the Sun!

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    India is a country dotted by majestic forts that have gone down in history as a testimony to a kingdom's greatness. This episode takes a look at the process of fortifying involved in architecture through the forts of Janjira and Daulatabad.

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    So any guesses to which is the hottest planet in our Solar System? It's time to find out. Let Anu Club crew member Rituja take you on a journey through the planet known as Earth's twin - Venus!

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    The self-replicating repetition of a pattern is the characteristic feature of temples at Khajuraho, and the best illustration is provided by the Kanadriya Mahadeo built between 95—1050 CE, during the reign of Chandela kings. A profusion of curvilinear Shikhar creates an impressive illusion of a mountain. The fractal pattern is encountered not only in the elevation but also in abundance of decorative detail. A similar play with fractals is indulged in the Virupaksha temple at Patadakkal in Karnataka. It is interesting that what the Indian builders practiced in early medieval period was articulated and explained by mathematicians only in the middle of the twentieth century.

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    Finally, we arrive on our home planet, Earth, our very own great rock ball in the solar system! Crew member Shriya takes you on an in-depth journey as to what our planet is all about!

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    Let's move on from our home planet to what could possibly be our next home, our friendly neighbor - MARS! Crew member Neel takes you on an exciting tour of the next best-explored planet in our Solar System.

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    We have completed our tour of the terrestrial planets in our solar system! Here's everything we have seen all rolled into one! Rock out with the terrestrial planets as Crew members Prateek, Rituja, Shriya, and Neel take you on one last journey before heading out to the gas giants!

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    Today let's visit the biggest planet in the solar system - Jupiter. Not only is Jupiter the biggest, but it’s also the fastest spinning planet and home to a crazy number of moons.

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    The ringed wonder and the crown jewel of the Solar System, the one and only Saturn! Today let's journey further out into the solar system to the second biggest but the least dense planet, Saturn!

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    How much do we really know about our neighbour? We see it on most nights and looking back at us is our friendly neighbourhood moon. It’s about time we go over and see what all the fuss is about. So join Anu Club crew members Neel and Ritu, as we journey to the Moon.

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    We're in the big league now. Not only is Uranus a giant planet, it's an ice giant too. Uranus is also home to 27 moons. Plus, it's the coldest in all of the solar system! Uranus is a pretty big deal. Join Anu Club crew member Sean as he takes you to a journey to Uranus.

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    We've reached the end. The last floor of the solar system building - Neptune. Besides being the furthest planet from the sun, there's a bunch of other fun things about this planet! To find out how the planet was discovered by math plus a ton of other cool information about Neptune, start watching!

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    So, we have completed our tour to the Gas Giants of our Solar System and the entire Solar System itself! Here's everything we have seen of the last 4 planets all rolled into one! Crew members Sean, Shriya, and Ritu take you on a wild journey to the gassiest planets of them all!

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    Anu Club returns in a new format answering one of the most daunting questions in astronomy, 'Why is there just SO much Hydrogen and Helium in the universe?' Short answer: The universe got lazy and bored!

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    Ever heard the term light-year and wondered what it is? Join Anu Club member, Kushal as he gives you all the details. And no, Suppandi, it is not the light bill for a year.

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    It’s one small step for mankind, one giant leap for Anu Club. As Chandrayaan-2, India's second lunar exploration mission makes its way to the moon, we thought we’d find out just why it’s going there in the first place. Chandrayaan-2 is an extremely fascinating mission. To the moon and beyond!

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    We are taking a short break between food and the next topic for a quick update! Chandrayaan 2 and the Vikram Lander had a few problems but the mission is far from a failure! Anu Club crew member Ritu, tell you more about what happened with the Vikram Lander, What is the future of the mission and Why it is not a failure!

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    Meet the trio, Adheer; an ace thief, Roshni; a history geek and Dev; a ganglord in Gurgaon. A renowned scientist, Kartik Devraj, a.k.a KD captures the three and warns how they'd only be let free after the mission's completion. With KD's invention of a time machine, the trio is transported to 19th century Bengal. Saving a widowed queen from committing sati, retrieving her priceless necklace and returning to the future, the trio realize that this is just the beginning of their secret mission.

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    Dev, Roshni, and Adheer are introduced to their first mission – stealing the Jade Tiger. The Jade Tiger was a gift from Napoleon Bonaparte to Tipu Sultan. They time-travelled to 1799, the time when Mysore was under siege. They were, at last, able to finish the mission. But before they could be happy about their first success, Adheer deceives the rest of the team members and returns to 2014 with the treasure, alone.

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    Adheer returns to the present but is forced to go back to 1799 and get back his other team members from the warzone, for the sake of his own life. The team was not yet able to overcome what Adheer did and there was already another mission waiting for them. The end of this mission resulted in two things – a successful robbery, and the restoration of Adheer's faith in heroism and bravery.

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    The mission to replace the original copy of the Akbarnama with a fake takes the trio on a whirlwind adventure of rescue, humiliation, anger and deceit.

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    In this episode of Time Machine, the team reaches the days of British Raj to steal the crown of King George from Delhi Durbar. While Dev is suspicious about KD, the team enters the 'tent city'. Unfortunately, the city is attacked by revolutionaries, the same night. Amidst the chaos, the team encounters a cook who recognises them.

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    The secrecy of the mission is revealed. The trio feel cornered after an escape, a capture and a successful theft. They decide to leave KD behind in the year 1911 before he breaks down.

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    KD travels back to reveal the real mission. The thirst for success, rubbing shoulders with the tarnished and greed lost KD much more than he deserved. He reveals the story to the trio hoping for help.

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    Relationships have evolved, and the team finds themselves in 350 BC Bengal stealing the Garuda shaped royal scepter of Samudragupta, but are captured by soldiers while on their 6th mission.

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    Locked in 1519, the team travels to steal Vijaynagar Karnataka Tuluva dynasty's 3rd King Krishna Deva Raya's royal symbol. They enter the palace as horse traders and are caught off guard on several occasions. Each of them take on different avatars to escape the daunting situations. Will they be successful in their mission? Do they manage to reach home alive? Find out all on this episode of Time Machine.

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    Caught in situation, the time travelers use their intelligence and wit to escape back to the future. The last episode ended with Adheer and KD tied to a chair, their secret of time travel revealed. What do their friends Roshni and Dev do to help them? Does the King decide to execute the trespassers? Do they succeed in their mission to steal the Royal symbol?

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    A mission that could change the course of history is underway. The team needs another 350 cores to make up for the deficit to pay Sachin Dixit. The biggest heist in history is planned where the trio will try to steal the Great Mughal Diamond from the Golconda Fort. Travelling back to 1653, the team stages a Mughal attack, stumbles on a hoard of prisoners and befriends a historic thief but are they successful in their mission? Watch the episode to find out.

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    Rolling back to year 1655, the team visits Agra. The agenda of the mission is to rob the sparkling diamond which Mir Jumla is about to gift to the great Shah Jahaan in Aurangzeb's presence. In a twist of events, Shah Jahaan believes Roshni to be his dead wife's ghost while the number 9 has a special role to play and Aurangzeb holds a dagger on Dev and Adheer's neck. Will they return to safety? Do they retrieve the original diamond? Is there a spy among them? Find out all this and more on this episode.

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    KD finally succeeds in completing all the time-travelling missions he planned and executed. According to the agreement, Sachin Dixit was supposed to leave his family alone after the completion of all the missions. But little did he know that he was still one time-travel away from being free – the mission of rescuing his own family from Ashoka’s Hell.

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